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CLIMATE

On land, every plant mass enjoys an abundance of air rich in CO² (carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide) and in  (oxygen). Without this, all life is impossible! Through the stomata covering their leaves (similar to human pores), a plant rejects oxygen (but also consumes less, but less!) And assimilates CO2 (but also rejects, but less!). 
From this state of affairs, indoors, the fact of reproducing the climatic conditions from the outside to the inside guarantees abundant and fast harvests.

climate

Plants produce their own organic matter (sugar, cellulose, energy ...) from water (mineral salts) and CO², assimilated by the leaves thanks to solar energy; this is the mechanism of photosynthesis. Deprived of this gas, the plant dies. Through the stomata covering their leaves, plants release more oxygen than they consume and consume far more CO2 than they release. Indoors, none of the natural elements that generate CO² are present, except the plant. It is the horticulturist who must take charge of bringing it.

Extractors and air injectors

An extractor and an air injector are indispensable in a culture chamber, by operating by air. The extractor, placed in height, renews the CO² and ejects the depleted air from the culture chamber, while regulating the temperature. The intractor facilitates the work of the extractor by optimizing the renewal of air; it is placed at the bottom of the piece, opposite the extractor and at a lower speed. The power of these two turbines must be proportional to the heat emitted by the light sources employed, as a function of the culture space.

The air extractor evacuates hot, oxygen-depleted air from the culture chambers. It is essential in indoor cultivation because it avoids the choking of plants and the attack of parasitic and funny molds of stagnant and damp air. Reverse the direction and you will get an air injector.

All you need to know to control air

Ventilation

Temperature

In addition to air renewal, ventilation is an essential parameter for the proper functioning of a growing space. Air movements facilitate the exchange of 0² / CO² of the stomata (= gain of vivacity) and widen the plant structure (= production gain). They are ensured by fans or brewers, to direct directly on the plants in a homogeneous and progressive way.

ventilation

The required temperature is between 20 ° C and 25 ° C, ideal at 23 ° C. By extraction / intraction and ventilation, the temperature of the culture chamber is controlled to some extent; in fact, maintaining a good temperature is difficult in summer when the ambient heat is added to that of the lamps. Two solutions: use an air conditioner or start the lighting phase at dusk. It is important that temperature variations do not exceed 10 ° C between day and night to compensate for any stress that plants may suffer. It is advisable to connect a thermostat to the extractor and to the intractor in order to automatically manage the temperature differences within the culture chamber.

It is also important that temperature variations do not exceed 10 ° C between day and night to overcome any unnecessary stress on plants. To prevent these disturbing fluctuations, it is advisable to connect a thermostat to the extractor and to the introducer, which allows an automated temperature management within the growing space. See heating .

Humidity

odors

In addition to temperature control, the use of extractors / in- troctors and fans allows humidity control (or hygrometry). Expressed as a percentage (%), the amount of water available in the air is measured with a hygrometer and is controlled by a hygrostat (coupling to extraction / ventilation or humidification). In most cases, a growing chamber that harbors plants in the vegetative phase (growth) requires the installation of a humidifier (cold steam and already equipped with a hygrostat) or an ultrasonic fogger to maintain the required 50-70% humidity. These measures ensure optimal gas exchange in the stomata. On the contrary, 45 to 50% relative humidity for flowering is sufficient to avoid possible molds.

thermo-hygrometer measures temperature and humidity, which can display the minimum / maximum of these values. This very practical tool should be placed in the center of the crop space and at the top of the plants to record the correct data. 
These two measurements, the temperature and the humidity, are combined on a device which can display the minimum-maximums of these two values, the thermo-hygrometer. This very practical tool is to be placed in the center of the culture space and at the heights of the tops of the plants to record the true measurements.

The management of odors is also a factor to take into account so as not to disturb the neighborhood. For this, several products available on the market are effective up to 100%: the carbon filter, the ionizer (a device releasing negative ions that purify the air) or the ozone generator (requiring the placement of an auxiliary chamber to place the generator). The charcoal filter, the ionizer (a device that releases negative ions and which eliminates odors and cleans the air) or the ozone generator (requiring the installation of an auxiliary chamber to place the generator). Being the best selling and the best value for money, the carbon filter is like a big cylinder filled with activated charcoal trapping odors. Very simple to install, it is placed at the top, inside the cultivation space and connects to the inlet of the extraction circuit insofar as heat and odors rise. In addition, place a carbon filter on the outside,
In order to boost plant growth and maximize production, some demanding growers use CO2 injection.

Odor management can also be done by innovative small appliances such as The Neutralizer.

CO² Injection

Soundproof boxes

In order to boost plant growth and maximize production, some demanding growers use CO2 injection . This technique consists in releasing carbon dioxide within the culture chamber which must be hermetic (installation of non-return valves at the air inlets / outlets) to reach a value of 1500 ppm. 
This contribution can be effected efficiently in two forms: the melting of dry ice (placed in containers) or the controlled release of CO² bottles (connected to a solenoid valve and a CO² controller informed by a probe).In order to prevent carbon dioxide poisoning, the installation of a CO² detection alarm is strongly recommended.

The soundproof enclosures are used to stop noise from certain ventilation equipment.

soundproof box

The selection of ventilation equipment

The ventilation of your culture chamber has two important factors: the removal of hot air (CO2-depleted) and the entry of fresh fresh air. The hot air is evacuated using a VK series air extractor. Fresh air can be supplied either by passive aeration (open window type) or by the installation of a TT series air injector, which can also be used as an extractor. By knowing the size of the room and the number of lamps that will be used, you can work on the required ventilation in m3 per hour (m³ / h)


How to calculate the size Ø and the extraction rate of the fan m³ / h:

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First of all you have to calculate the necessary fan size. There are several ways to determine the desired extraction power depending on the volume of the part. That is to say that there are more appropriate ones than others and others more complicated. The following method is well known and has been approved by many growers:

[Extractors: exhaust required for fan capacity (m³ / h)]

= [Volume of active growth zone (m³) x Air change per unit of time (hours) x [Loss of rate - Coal filter]

NOTE: When we talk about the volume of culture, we include the volume occupied by lamps and plants.

To calculate the volume, multiply the length x the width x the height. 
In our example with 2 lamps of 600W, this gives 1,20mx2,40mx2x50m which gives a volume of culture of 7,20m³. When you know your volume, you must multiply it by the volume of air to be renewed per hour. 

NOTE: For the majority of interior gardens without air conditioning or without CO² addition, the rule of "inch" is 1 per minute. In this case, multiply the volume of culture by 60 to calculate the volume of air to be renewed per hour. 

Finally, when a charcoal filter is attached to the fan, a 25% reduction in efficiency is to be expected. This data is variable and depends on the age of the filter, the length and power of the ducts used between the fan and the filter and other factors. To estimate this efficiency drop of 25, multiply by 1.25. 

NOTE: Using a filter reduces the efficiency of the fan by 25%. 

If we relate the equation to our example of culture chamber it gives this:

[Capacity required air exhaust (m³ / h)] = [Active growth volume area (m³) x 60] x 1.25

[Required capacity air exhaust (m³ / h)] = ((1,2x2,4x2,5) x60) x 1,25

= 540 m³ / hr

The final result is the minimum extraction size required. For example: TT 150 Ø 150mm flow 552m³ / h.

Result: Extraction fan Winflex VK 200 
Hose Ø 200mm 
Air flow : 540 m³ / h

If the culture chamber is in a very well insulated place like a basement, then use this figure should be fine. On the other hand, if the growing chamber is located in a place very exposed to heat and natural sunlight, such as an upstairs bedroom or attic, then the size of the extractor needed should be increased by about 25 %. 

Growing chamber in a room or attic: Frequently, it will be necessary to choose an approaching extractor among the choice that offers the WINFLEX VK range. In our case, the closest and widely available is an extractor of size 200mm 780m³ / h type VKU 200.

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Example of cultivation in a subsoil.Example of cultivation near a room.


How to calculate the size and air capacity of the air injector:

As mentioned above, a continuous supply of fresh air (outside the production area) must be provided in the greenhouse. This can be achieved in several ways:

fan passive.jpgfig8-.jpgfig9-.jpg

1.  Ducts (flexible ventilation ducts) 
4. Extraction fan VK 3. Carbon 
filter 
D. Rectangular ventilation grille 
E. 
Dark gray window opening : light gray box

Make a passive ventilation by which fresh air can be established. (through the open window).

Note ! As a general rule, passive intractability should be 2 to 3 times greater than the extraction outlet. 

This means that if the extractor is 150 mm in diameter, the culture chamber will need a 2 or 3 x 150 mm bore or rectangular ventilation grilles with an equal area. When installing the passive intraction, the exhaust fan should always be placed at the opposite end of the culture room.

1.  Ducts (flexible ventilation ducts) 
2. Ventilation fan TT 
4. Extraction fan VK
3. The carbon filter 
C. TM / TMY moistener

F. Filter housing FB

Second way: Make an installation of active in-line fans that push fresh air into the greenhouse. This installation is more efficient than passive aeration.

1.  Ducts (flexible ventilation ducts) 
2. Ventilation fan TT 
4. Extraction fan VK
3. The carbon filter 
C. TM / TMY moistener

F. Filter housing FB 
G. TM jointing 
H. KR humidifier

During the cold months of winter, it is strongly advised not to pump direct air from the outside but rather to take the air from a cool room in the house (the room or the living room).

Fig-10-.jpgfig12.jpg

1.  Ducts (flexible ventilation ducts) 
2. Ventilation fan TT 
4. Extraction fan VK
3. The carbon filter 
C. TM / TMY moistener

F. Filter housing FB 
G. TM jointing 
H. KR humidifier

During the summer months it is best to suck in the outside air via a cooler (or the air from an air conditioner) rather than the air from the house that may be too hot.

Source of fresh air in summer. Each time you pull air directly from the outside, it is advisable to use a Winflex FB series filter box (with flat filter element) or the Winflex FBV series (with V-filter element, increasing filtration of the area) to avoid intrusion of pests and other insects.

1.  Ducts (flexible ventilation ducts) 
4. Extraction fan VK
3. The carbon filter 
C. TM / TMY humidor 
A. Oscillating fan

It is preferable to divide the air with a bypass T or Y so that the air cools is evenly distributed. It should also be borne in mind that the TT WINFLEX range is more effective in pushing (intraclear) than pulling air (extraction) through a sheath or a carbon filter. 
This means that when positioning your air intake it is best to place it near the source of fresh air and push it towards the culture chamber. To make the filtered greenhouse air more efficiently, make sure the flexible air duct is smooth and straight.

Winflex has a series of non-return valves to prevent a return air intake, which opens when the ventilation is switched on and off as soon as it is extinguished. This system is installed in line with the series of flexible ducts Winflex. 

Note: When installing a vacuum extractor, it is imperative to ensure that it provides the necessary air to the surface. 

If you introduce more air than the exhaust fan can remove, the air begins to build up and causes a "positive pressure" to exhaust untreated air out of the culture room. Thus, select a suction fan with a maximum air and flow capacity that is 10-20% lower than the actual output of the exhaust fan to create a "negative pressure".

To find the intractor diameter, you will need to take the power of the extractor and apply an estimated reduction for the carbon filter - 25%. If our goal for the Intractor is 15% less than the extractor, we must multiply the reduced output by 0.85. Below 

is a diagram showing how to "measure" the intraction required for a room equipped with 2 600W lamps:

[Capacity extractor estimate with carbon filter] = [Air extraction capacity] x 0.75 = 585 m³ / h

[Air intake capacity of the fan (with reduction to ensure negative pressure)] = [Estimate of air extraction capacity with carbon filter] x 0,85 = 497 m³ / h

For this rate of intraction, the nearest product in flow and widely available is one of size 150mm type TT150 or VK150. 

Note: When installing the vent, make sure the air extractor is installed opposite the culture chamber.

Useful tips to improve ventilation in your growing room

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1.  Ducts (flexible ventilation ducts) 
2. Ventilation fan TT 
4. Extraction fan VK

Position your air injector downwards, diagonally opposite the extraction. Remember, you have to mount your fan. This will allow a fresh current of fresh air to circulate within your growing chamber, while removing hot and humid air at the same time. When mounting your exhaust fan, use the appropriate brackets to avoid vibration (Winflex TT and Winflex VK fans of the series are shipped with mounting brackets). You can also use the Winflex fan. The extraction must be installed diagonally and opposite to the air intake for better circulation of air and evacuation of hot and humid air.

3. The carbon filter


It absorbs any kind of bad odors caused by plants in certain types of crops. The air is filtered and evacuated so there is no odor. Some types of crops can cause bad odors. A professional carbon filter coupled with the air extractor will help you eliminate 90-95% of odors. However, it is important to securely attach your charcoal filter to the air extractor; it is important that the odors are well absorbed before being evacuated. Therefore, an extractor of 750m³ capacity will need a 750m³ carbon filter. Do not attempt to use a lower capacity filter. it will not work!

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5. Silencers

The use of mufflers (Winflex SR, SRF or SRP) and acoustic ducts (Winflex) considerably reduces the noise caused by air circulation in the ventilation system. If noise is a major concern, consider using the soundproof jacket. This can eliminate up to about one third of the noise generated by air turbulence. It is necessary to use at least one meter on both ends of the extractor in order to obtain all the advantages. Using noise mufflers, either rigid (Winflex SR series) or flexible (Winflex SRF SRP series) is also a good way to reduce noise. They can be used to run a ventilation system in a domestic space. Again, for best result, attach a muffler on each end of your fan.

6./7. TTU and VKU: Intractor and extractor with fan speed control

Use Winflex TT ... U fan and Winflex VK ... U fan with speed and temperature control module to get better temperature and air quality conditions. To obtain precise control in the hot and cold climate, it is advantageous to use the extractors, the inerti- vators with automatic speed control and the temperature sensor of the exhaust duct (Winflex TT ... U series and Winflex VK ... series U) or with the remote control 4 Temperature sensors 2m long (Winflex TT ...) These fans operate at a constantly reduced speed. Regular air changes are essential for good growth. An integrated combined speed control and a thermostat will allow you to regulate the number of air changes per hour.


WARNING ! Equipment generating heat must be stored outside the culture chamber.

To ensure electrical safety and avoid unnecessary heat transfer, any equipment that generates heat must be stored outside the culture chamber, on a shelf or on any non-flammable surface. 
climate
Tank nutrients, all liquid nutrients, fertilizers and additives should also be outside your growing room.

Find all our advice for your interior culture:


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